Monday, February 25, 2008

Battle of Jarama Still Remembered 71 years on....

On Saturday February 16th a large crowd from several different countries gathered in the hills above Morata de Tajuna, 15 miles from Madrid, Spain. They had come to commemorate the Battle of Jarama, where 71 years earlier the International Brigade of the Spanish Republican Army had turned back the Fascist advance under General Franco. The Brigade's casualties were severe, and included many local militants from the British and Irish labour movements.At the event a large Irish contingent remembered those from their native land who were killed fightingFascism in the Spanish Civil War, and the picture shows the display of the Sinn Fein flag at the cairn placed to commemorate Kit Conway. Conway, like CharlesDonnelly, Frank Ryan and Bob Doyle, had been IRA activists who had gone to defend democracy in Spain against the military revolt of the far right. Thedisplay of the flag served as a reminder of the longstanding links between Irish nationalism and the wider cause of progress around the world....

SALUD!...TO KIT CONWAY (left) CHRISTOPHER CAUDWELL (bottom right) and the REV,ROBERT M HILLIARD WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES ALONGSIDE THOUSANDS OF OTHERS OF THEIR COMRADES FIGHTING FASCISM AT JARAMA FEBRUARY 1937 . To see images of the British and Irish position as they are today go to http://webpages.dcu.ie/~sheehanh/photos/jarama.htm

87 comments:

Mick Hall said...

Salud to all the brave comrades who went to Spain to fight fascism on behalf of the international working class. A democratic Spain is their legacy

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Malcolm Redfellow said...

I've just come upon a pamphlet from the Cumann Cuimhneacháin '98, which is a leftist account of the 1798 Rebellion.

The Cumann seems to have been a collective of good comrades, including George Gilmore (IB and Republican Congress), Rosamund Jacob, Máire Comerford and Greg Murphy (uncle and inspirer of Eugene Dowling, IB).

I've scanned the document, and posted it in its entirety at http://redfellow.blogspot.com/2008/03/different-take-on-98-now-for-another.html

David Duff said...

"A democratic Spain is their legacy"

No it wasn't! A fascist Spain was the end result. By chance, a rather sensible and intelligent man ruled Spain when Franco died and if anyone deserves the accolade it is him, not some long-dead idiots who, to their everlasting shame, fought for one of the biggest mass-murderers in history, a man who made Hitler look like a dilettante.

Peregrino said...

Hello David, sorry but you have been badly misinformed. Young people went to Spain to fight to defend the legally and democratically elected Government of Spain, against a fascist invasion by General Franco, strongly by the Catholic Church and the big landowners. Stalin supplied the arms after both Britain and France had refused to help. Read Anthony Beevors "The Spanish Civil War" for more info.
Best wishes, Kevin

Peregrino said...

One more remark. According to the experts the Republic, despite some internal problems, only lost the war due to sheer force of arms. The arms and troops being supplied to Franco by Hitler and Mussolini.
These are facts. The Second World war may never have happened if the Fascists had been stopped in Spain.
Fancy that! Read Orwells "Homage to Catalonia for more info. Regards Kevin

David Duff said...

Thank you, Kevin, for your helpful history lesson which does not, of course, correct anything that I wrote, ie, the non-Spaniards in the civil war on the communist side were fighting on behalf of one of the two greatest mass murderers in history (Mao was the other), and in so far as any one man can take credit for the resoration of democracy in Spain, it was King Carlos.

My sentiments concerning the evil and perfidy of the communist side in the war should not be taken as a blessing on the other side who were, in the Spanish tradition, as vicious and ruthless as Spanish history informs us their forefathers were during Bomaparte's ill-judged venture into that benighted country.

My regards to you, too.

David Duff said...

Oh dear, too many typos - time for my cocoa, I feel!

Malcolm Redfellow said...

David Duff @ 2.56PM:

Ah! King Carlos, the brave slayer of drunken bears: good to know there are still some starry-eyed romantics who believe the Spanish people couldn't have reached this stage of development without a strong man to guide them. Funnily enough, I don't meet many Catalans, Basques or even Spaniards who take that view. Distance must enhance the glittering prospect.

More positively, I trust others picked up Max Hastings reviewing Stanley G Payne yesterday. Yes, he's a right, very Right, old Tory; but he hit a number of buttons for me here:
... General Francisco Franco, a monster with more blood on his hands than Mussolini. The Spaniard persisted with the wholesale murder of his defeated civil-war enemies all through the second world war, and indeed afterwards. He sustained his tyranny until dying in his bed in 1975.

To this day, imbecile right-wing pundits – some of them British – pay homage to Franco’s statesmanship and the “sound” governance of his country. In truth, as Stanley Payne’s book emphasises, Spain’s abstention from the second world war was the product of clumsy diplomacy rather than of wisdom.

Franco fully intended to join the axis struggle against the democracies. It often goes unnoticed that Spain’s wartime status was not that of a true neutral nation such as Switzerland or Sweden, but of nonbelligerence, which Payne suggests could more aptly have been described as prebelligerence.

Peregrino said...

Hello David and Malcolm and thank you for your comments. The fact remains David that these youngsters were fighting for a legally elected Government which was being attacked by a fascist controlled army and supported by German and Italian fascist Governments. A quick glance at the program of the Republican Governments proposals in 1936 would show that their proposals then have become part and parcel of most postwar European democracies. They were just a bit ahead of their time. To accuse the Spanish as a race of being especially cruel or ruthless is not the perogative of any, repeat any European. Regards, Kevin

David Duff said...

Malcolm, I have no argument with Hastings's summary of Franco; and I was careful to write "*in so far as* any one man can take credit for the restoration of democracy in Spain, it was King Carlos." [Emphasis added]

Kevin, I have no argument with you over who the communists were fighting *against*, it is who they were fighting *for* that concerns me, as it should you. Both Hitler and Stalin backed their respective sides with arms and money for reasons far removed from the 'ideals' of the sillies who were daft enough to go and fight and die there. Mention of Hitler and Stalin in one sentence reminds me of the good Doctor's musings concerning the difference between a louse and a flea!

I think I am correct in reminding you that under Stalin's orders, considerable numbers of communists were shot by their own side!

It is entirely proper for anyone with even a slight knowledge of history to come to the conclusion that the Spanish are a particularly ruthless, vicious, cruel and bloody set of people if you infringe what they consider to be theirs. This is not a characteristic that is unique to them but it some time since the Swedes, say, or the Dutch, or the Swiss, have demonstrated it. As Malcolm usefully points out above, Franco persisted with the wholesale slaughter of his opponents for years after the event was over, and he was, er, Spanish!

Plot Tracer said...

Superb blog, Gabriel. Just come across it via a link on a friends blog.

And you are right - the Spanish Civil War comrades should never be forgotten.

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www.slleftunity.com

Gabriel said...

Good to see that this posting has created a good debate.

David, whilst I welcome your contributions on the whole, I wish to request that you be a little more considerate in your postings.

The reference to International Brigade volunteers as 'long dead idiots' (apart from being singularly untrue..I think most people would agree that Christopher Caudwell was far from an idiot David...if you have'nt heard of hime google his name please) proved to be offensive and upsetting personally to one of this blogs readers. The 72 year old daughter of one of the International Brigader's photographed in the article contacted me by email and asked me to point out to you that, and I quote,

'whatever this odious little man's political views, he who is such a staunch defender of all things conservative and traditional would do well to remember that civilised and cultured people of all political persuasions have long observed a tradition described simply and pungently as 'respect for the dead'. I sincerely hope that he is proferred the same degree of respect after his passing, that he has so generously displayed to my late Father and his comrades"...

So David perhaps you might attempt to take that point on board in future? I do not like comments posted here to be a source of personal upset for any of this sites readers...Gabriel.

Peregrino said...

Hello Gabriel, David, Malcolm. This seems to be developing into a lively debate and we have to have perhaps a sneaking respect for David for sticking to his guns in the face of so many weighty, reflected and informed rebuttals. The last article from Gabriels friend moved me deeply. When I was 22 I hitched to India and spent a lot of time "finding myself". When I think of these gallant lads at Jarama, Teruel and many other places sacrificing their youth and for some of them their lives for freedom and justice for working people I feel an enormous sense of humility. Despite all the idiocy, cruelty and greed of mankind, just occasionally in history, you get a glimpse of the essential nobility, gallantry and unselfishness in humanity, that seems to make up for all the disappointments. Saludos!! Kevin

Anonymous said...

When people debate Stalin's role in the Spanish Civil War something needs to be remembered. The elected Spanish government was barred from buying arms on the open market, primarily by Britain. Therefore it turned to the Soviet Union for help, and one of the costs was Stalin exporting his purges to Spain. Had Britain and France (but it was principally Britain) allowed Republican Spain to buy arms that might not have happened. The International Brigade was formed because the Spanish army was largely on Franco's side. It was not, incidently, Stalin's idea. All of this information is easily available in the major books on the subject.

David Duff said...

I paused and thought for a moment before responding to your polite strictures, Gabriel, because I realise that I do tend to write with an exceedingly sharp quill pen from time to time! I read carefully your correspondent's complaint, but I'm afraid she is wrong. There is indeed a convention, which I support, that one should not speak ill of the dead *in the immediate aftermath of their death*. Seventy years after the event does not qualify and nor should it. Such a restriction would forbid me from describing Joseph Stalin, on whose behalf your correspondent's father fought and died, as a psychotic mass-murderer of epic proportions, a fact that was obvious to anyone at the time except those who did not wish to see it, and which might bring down on my head a letter of complaint from his grand-daughter who I believe lives in the USA. Were this rule to be applied, no further history books would be written.

I described the foreign members of the International Brigade variously as "idiots" and "sillies". Perhaps that was unduly vitriolic (actually, I don't think it was vitriolic enough!) but in deference to your correspondent's feelings let me withdraw those words and simply describe them as foolish and thoughtless. However, you were right in one respect, 'Christopher Cauldwell' was just bright enough, or perhaps ashamed enough, to drop his real, rather patrician name of Christopher St John Sprigg whilst espousing his support for the working classes of the world. Somehow, St. John Sprigg doesn't feel quite right when one is mixing with the proles!

'Anon' misses the point in the usual manner of most 'Anons' (is it an inherited trait?). I don't care what the reasons were for Stalin joining in, the fact remains that thousands of gullible (is that OK?) young men went off to their slaughter on his behalf. There is a common thread that runs through this blog that somehow the pursuit of an ideal excuses everything. Well it was no excuse for the young idealists who enlisted in the SS, or in Mao's Red Guard cohorts, or the Bahder-Meinhof gang, to name but a few in the melancholy history of Mankind.

Malcolm Redfellow said...

I read David Duff, back on 9th March, at 2:56 PM decrying the:
… non-Spaniards in the civil war on the communist side were fighting on behalf of one of the two greatest mass murderers in history (Mao was the other), and in so far as any one man can take credit for the restoration of democracy in Spain, it was King Carlos.
I’ve already had a go at the second half of that; but expected others, more knowledgeable, to have a go at the other bit.
For a start, what’s this about “the communist side”? I’d allow “the republican side”, but prefer “the Government side”. Just because this is “An Unrepentant Communist” blog should not exclude all those who went to Spain, to fight for democracy, but were not members (or even sympathisers) of the Party.
However, at this stage, I like to address the assumption that Stalin and Comintern aid were involved from the beginning.
General Sanjurjo was meeting Admiral Canaris in Germany, and discussing arms supplies during the IVth Winter Olympics (6-16 February) at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, well in advance of the ‘generally exemplary’ Election of 16 February 1936. The Generals’ plot, with Mola as its focus, was in train at least from early March. Franco and others urged the caretaker Prime Minister, Portela, to declare a State of War to prevent the Popular Front taking office. Falangist and other death squads were taking out opponents. The Carlist heir, François Xavier, secured quantities of arms in Germany, including 10,000 machine guns (the rest were impounded at Antwerp under non-intervention).
When would Mr Duff like to date the start of the Civil War? With Mola ordering the rising (17 July)? Or with the Government releasing arms to the people – note, not just to “communists” (19 July)? Or with the arrival of the second wave of rebels and the Army of Africa landing at Cadiz?
Stalin seems to have committed substantial Soviet aid to the Republic only after he met Thorez on 21 September, which was the consequence of the French suspending military aid from 9 August. On that day, the Germans were telling the British Foreign Office that ‘no war materials had been sent from Germany and none will’. Again, that same day, the rebels received 10 Italian bombers, 18 Junkers, 6 German fighters, and 6 German AA guns. Admittedly Ehrenburg was in Spain, allegedly as a reporter for ‘Izvestia’ from late August; and Krivitsky may have been (rather limply) trying to send military supplies through The Hague from 2 September. Soviet ships finally reached Spain on 15 October.
Now, shall we double back for a similar factually-based discussion of what motivated those ‘long-dead idiots who, to their everlasting shame, fought’ for the Republic? Or shall we settle for agreeing that it’s equally a ‘duff’ argument?

Peregrino said...

Hello Malcolm, I seem to remember the facts or at least some of the facts mentioned as appearing in Anthony Beevor's book. A bit of news. As you know there are many pilgrims roads in Spain. Thanks to the historical memory law people are now able to visit some of the unmarked mass graves along the Camino de la Plata and the Camino Frances, especially around Alemandralejo and Zafra. It's bitter history but I am glad so many want to commemorate it. Best. Kevin

David Duff said...

Malcolm, this from the Spartacus website:

"The idea of an international force of volunteers to fight for the Republic was initiated by Maurice Thorez, the French Communist Party leader. Joseph Stalin agreed and in September 1936 the Comintern began organising the formation of International Brigades. An internatinal recruiting centre was set up in Paris and a training base at Albercete in Spain."

'Nuff said, I think!

Malcolm Redfellow said...

Yeah, well …

Spartacus follows (and grossly simplifies) Thomas, chapter 36, and Beevor, chapter XIII, here. Thomas is by far the more detailed and has the benefit of primary sources.

Thomas notes that “International Brigades” were mooted at a Comintern/Profintern meeting of 26 July, when humanitarian aid was already on the agenda. Thorez was in Moscow as late as 21 September. Tom Wintringham, who was already in Spain with the British medical unit, had conceived a similar notion. Thomas has a typically-caustic footnote:
It is in principal unlikely that such an idea could have come to Thorez himself, who is not a man of vast imagination, and it is at least possible that Wintringham should be given more credit for it than he.

Anyway, by that stage there were already hundreds of foreigners in the Republican ranks. Moscow was playing catch-up because most of them had allied with Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista. POUM worried Moscow no end, because it was seen to have Trot leanings.
Beevor amplifies this:
There already existed in Spain the Thaelmann centuria headed by Hans Beimer, a leading German revolutionary after the First World War, who had recently escaped from Dachau. Many other left-wingers and liberals had also arrived in Barcelona of their own accord. It has been estimated that about 5,000 foreigners fought for the Spanish Republic outside the International Brigades.
[My emphasis]

Closer home, Peadar and Lile O’Donnell were in Spain from 2 July (that is, a fortnight before the Generals’ rising) because they had planned a holiday in a land with a likelihood of sun. They escaped from Barcelona to France with a group of Little Sisters of the Poor. O’Donnell (see his book Salud) does not deny there were atrocities and attacks on the religious. However, one of the Sisters he travelled with was Irish, so O’Donnell could personally contradict the nonsense from Dean Sexton of Cork that:
In Barcelona, controlled by the Red leader Caballero, they dragged out twenty-four Sisters of the Poor, stripped them naked and crucified them”.

O’Donnell returned from Spain enthusiastic about the Republic.

Anonymous said...

My father, Patrick Roe McLaughlin fought at Jarama, and elsewwhere, with the ALB. Google him up. I have no doubt that I am honoured to be the son of the bravest, most principled father on earth. I salute him.
The fact that I think he and his comrades were wrong, is a separate issue.
I understand perfectly their reasons at the time. Communism was genuinely regarded by sincere people to be the antidote to the faults (many) of Capitalism. With the benefit of hindsight they were pawns in an international conspiracy to deliver up the world's working classes, and the others too, into a nihtmare abyss of state slavery. I could write volumes on it.
The same Communists, backed by their useen manipultive masters, brought war to National Socialist Germany. It was not the other way around. It is ridiculous or a lesson in gullibility to suggest that one country, NS Germany, militarily weaker (proven) than its neighbours, could even consider taking on the three most powerful empires of the world at the time: the British Empire, the USSR, and of course their bedfellows, the American Govenment, which was anything but working class, as you very well know.
Dad! I salute you and your brave comrades. As you know, I never said anything other than you fought on the wrong side. Time proves me right. I take no comfort fom that. I damn Communism for the suffering it has brought to the world of my fellow men and women.

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